Within the scope of Oceanography various researchers carried out to determination of physical structure of our seas; sea-atmosphere interactions and their effects on the climate system; studies on the concentration, distribution and affects on water quality of substances transported via the atmosphere and sediments; interaction of chemical / biological / physical processes; the relationship between the climate and carbon cycle; genetic biodiversity, species diversity and ecosystem processes; how gas cycles interact with atmospheric and marine particles; how atmospheric nutrient inputs can affect marine production and determination of how these processes affect climate; research on ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions with the  Antarctic and Arctic ecosystems.